Synthesis and glutathione reductase inhibitory properties of 5-methyl-2,4-dihydro-3H-1,2,4-triazol-3-one's aryl Schiff base derivatives
Glutathione reductase (GR) is responsible for the existence of the reduced glutathione (GSH) molecule, a crucial antioxidant against oxidative stress reagents. The antimalarial activities of some redox active compounds are attributed to their inhibition of antioxidant flavoenzyme GR, and inhibitors are therefore expected to be useful for the treatment of malaria. In this work, a fast and effective synthesis and the GR inhibitory properties of 5-methyl-2,4-dihydro-3H-1,2,4-triazol-3-one's aryl Schiff base derivatives are reported. For this aim, the triazol nucleus was obtained, which was substituted with identical groups: ester, hydrazide, and Schiff base system at the N-2 and N-4 nitrogen atoms. The majority of the reactions were carried out by utilizing both microwave and conventional methods in order to compare their yields and reaction times. Beside this, the occuring E/Z geometrical isomers from the CN double bond and the cis/trans amide conformers at the CONH single bond were studied. In the biological activity section of this work, it was found that all synthesized compounds have better inhibitory activity than N,N-bis(2-chloroethyl)-N-nitrosourea against GR; especially, two molecules, 6e and 6f, are the best among them. The evidence indicates that these Schiff base derivatives, with triazole ring, are strong GR inhibitors and novel antimalaria candidates.